Radiative transfer code

Forest Light Environmental Simulator (FLiES)

– A 3D radiative transfer model for heterogeneous landscapes –

FLiES (Forest Light Environmental Simulator) is a three dimensional plant canopy radiative transfer model that can compute reflectance, absorbed light, transmitted light in heterogeneous landscapes.

FLiES Source code:

Currently, the source codes are distributed through Zenodo. The latest version 2.60 is available from:

Hideki Kobayashi. (2021). FLiES version 2.60. Zenodo. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5646665

Past versions:



  1. Kobayashi, H. and H. Iwabuchi (2008), A coupled 1-D atmosphere and 3-D canopy radiative transfer model for canopy reflectance, light environment, and photosynthesis simulation in a heterogeneous landscape, Remote Sensing of Environment, 112, 173-185.
  2. Kobayashi, H, R. Suzuki, S. Kobayashi (2007), Reflectance seasonality and its relation to the canopy leaf area index in an eastern Siberian larch forest: Multi-satellite data and radiative transfer analyes, Remote Sensing of Environment, 106, 238-252.
  3. Iwabuchi H. and H. Kobayashi, (2006), Modeling of radiative transfer in cloudy atmospheres and plant canopies using Monte Carlo methods, JAMSTEC Frontier Technical Report Vol 7., p.236.

Scattering correction

– R script for LiCOR LAI-2200C data analysis

This script is to correct the scattering radiance contained in the gap fraction measurements. The script is written in R.

Scattering correction R script and README: Latest version 1.0 (Nov 29th, 2016)


  1. Kobayashi, H., Ryu, D. D. Baldocchi, J. M. Welles, J. N. Norman (2013). On the correct estimation of gap fraction: How to remove scattered radiation in gap fraction measurements? Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 174-175, 170-183.